Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
What are the main components of attitudes?
1. Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude?
a. Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event.
b. Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one's actions.
c. Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event.
d. Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.
e. Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated.
(d; Moderate; p. 74)
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2. The belief that "violence is wrong" is a evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the _____ component of an attitude.
(a; Moderate; p. 74)
3. The _____ component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling component of that attitude.
(a; Easy; p. 74)
4. Jan is a security officer. Jan believes that it is important to know exactly who is in the office at any given time. She notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they take lunch, which makes it impossible to keep track of who is actually in the office. Jan becomes frustrated with those employees. She makes note of them and reports them to their supervisors.
In the above scenario, what is the behavioral component of Jan's attitude to the employees who did not sign out of the office?
a. Jan believes that it is important that she know exactly who is in the office at any given time.
b. Jan notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they take lunch.
c. Jan finds it impossible to keep track of who is actually in the office.
d. Jan becomes frustrated with those employees who do not sign out of the office.
e. Jan notes which employees leave the office without signing out, and reports them to their supervisors.
(e; Hard; p. 74)
5. Which of the following is an example of an attitude?
a. Satisfaction with a job well done.
b. The observation that most dogs have four legs.
c. The opinion that it is never acceptable to steal.
d. Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing.
e. The avoidance of a restaurant where one once received bad service.
(d; Moderate; p.74)
6. The following are possible actions that an individual may take if they behave in a way that is inconsistent with an attitude that they hold:
I: change the behavior
II: change the attitude
III: rationalize the behavior
IV: ignore the inconstancy
Which of these actions are the most likely to be taken?
a. Either I, or II
b. Either III or IV
c. One of I, II or III
d. One of I, III or IV
e. One of II, III or IV
(c; Moderate; p. 77)
7. Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in _____.
a. organizational dissonance
b. cognitive dissonance
c. attitudinal clarification
d. values clarification
e. affective reactance
(b; Moderate; p. 76)
8. The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by _____.
(b; Easy; p. 76)
9. Dan strongly believes that it is important that he spends time with his children on the weekends. Which of the following situations would most likely result in a very strong desire to reduce cognitive dissonance?
a. Being made by his boss to work weekends or lose his job.
b. Working over the weekend in order to cover for a sick friend.
c. Working over the weekend in order to secure a large cash bonus.
d. Working over the weekend in order to free up time for a golf game later in the week.
e. Working over the weekend in order to complete a project for a client vital to the company.
(d; Hard; p. 76)
10. "Dissonance" means _____.
(e; Moderate; p. 76)
11. Festinger argued that dissonance is _____.
c. physically painful
(e; Challenging; p. 76)
12. Jo is a courier, delivering parcels throughout the metropolitan area. Although she considers herself law abiding, she often breaks the speed limit while making her deliveries. Which of the following statements does not reflect a likely response to the conflict between her attitude and her behavior?
a. "It's not a problem that I speed a little bit, it's not much over the limit, and everyone else speeds some."
b. "The speed limits are just too low around here; anyone driving at a reasonable speed will break them."
c. "This speeding is irresponsible. From now on I am observing the speed limits."
d. "I've got to drive fast sometimes, otherwise I will not make all my deliveries and I'll lose clients."
e. "It's wrong to break even minor laws, but I'll probably keep speeding anyway."
(e: Hard; p.77)
13. According to Festinger, people will seek a(an) _____.
a. variable state with variable dissonance
b. stable state with maximal dissonance
c. unstable state with maximal dissonance
d. unstable state with minimal dissonance
e. stable state with minimal dissonance
(e; Moderate; p. 76)
14. Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by three factors including the _____.
a. values of the elements creating the dissonance
b. degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements
c. degree of positive affect the person has toward the behavior
d. fact that values and attitudes will vary over the short term
e. awareness that dissonance exists
(b; Challenging; p. 77)
15. The primary organizational implication of cognitive dissonance theory is that it helps to predict _____.
a. overall job satisfaction for employees
b. the likelihood of a given employee engaging in impression management
c. the overall level to which the workforce will accept gender, racial or other types of bias
d. the willingness of the workforce to accept company rules and work practices
e. the inclination towards attitude and behavioral change of the workforce
(e; Moderate; p. 77)
16. Which of the following is not a moderating variable of the A-B relationship?
a. direct experience
(b; Moderate; p. 78)
17. The attitude-behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if the attitude_____.
a. refers to something that the individual has direct personal experience with
b. must be defended against the attitudes of society at large
c. is perceived to be of little importance
d. is related to organizational structure
e. is not regularly discussed and examined
(a; Moderate; p. 78)
18. The theory that attitudes are used, after the fact, to make sense out of action that has already occurred is best explained by _____.
a. cognitive dissonance
b. escalation of commitment
c. self perception theory
d. uncertainty avoidance
e. organizational commitment
(c; Moderate; p. 78)
19. Which of the following statements are best explained by self-perception theory?
a. "I think it's wrong to steal, so I never have taken as much as a paper-clip home from the office."
b. "I wouldn't want an office job, all my life I've worked outdoors, even as a child growing up on a farm."
c. "I may have cut a few corners when I wrote that new contract, but it was more important to get it in on time than worry about a few typos."
d. "I am a deeply religious person, so I do not want to work on any of the holy days my faith holds dear."
e. "It is important to be truthful, but not so much that you cause unnecessary offense."
(b; Hard; p. 78)
20. Which of the following is not true concerning diversity programs?
a. They almost always include a self-evaluation phase.
b. They seek to change attitudes in response to shifts in perspective on diversity issues.
c. Participants often take part in group discussions with representatives from diverse groups.
d. They avoid making participants openly confront the stereotypes that they hold.
e. The use of these programs is increasing.
(d; Moderate; p. 84-85)